No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior permission of Oxford University Press. Black, the color of the fertile earth, symbolized fertility, renewal, and the under- world.Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt / Donald B. Red symbolized fire, blood, the desert, and chaos; it was the skin color of the male figure in art. ISBN 0-19-510234-7 (set)— ISBN 0- 19-51 382 1-X (v. This palette continued through the remainder of Egyptian painting, becoming more pastel in the Ptolemaic and Roman pe- riods. A number of other colors were formed by mixing the above colors to form blue-red (tms), turquoise-green (mfkjt), yellow-orange- red (kt), gray I dht ? In the Old Kingdom, the basic palette consisted of black, white, red. By the Middle Kingdom, red tones were expanded to form brown and pink; and later in the New Kingdom, additional shades ol blue, yellow, and red were added. bin bh Sher l la | mad C T7, 6 u 0rt l ° ascertain that necessary permissions to reprint materials have been secured. Painting added detail to carved, sculpted, and molded images and in the case ol Hat surfaces, created the form and design itself. DT58.094 2001 932— dc21 99-054801 The photographs and line drawings used herein were supplied by contributors to the work h f * he E j' t0nal B ° ard ' maj0r museums ' and b y commercial photographic archives. It enhanced almost every surface in Egyptian art: tomb and temple walls; mud-brick structures such as palaces, domestic shrines, and houses; sculpture and relief; coffins, sarcophagi, and cartonnage; cosmetic objects, furniture, leather, linen, os- traca, papyri, pottery and tomb models. RU FAMILY-CLUB-OBRAZOVATELNYJ-TSENTR-INOSTRANNYH-YAZYKOV. RU FEDE-BTICINO-GIRA-MERTEN-JUNG-BERKER-ABB-LEGRAND-FONTINI-LLINAS.
Yellow was a solar color connoting the sun, the flesh and bones of the gods; it was the skin tone of the female figure in art.The pigment was then applied with a brush to stone, wood, plaster, linen, papyrus, leather, clay, or a wall prepared with gypsum plaster, which had been allowed to dry be- fore receiving paint, in a technique known as tempera.In some cases, rapid execution or heavily trodden areas ne- cessitated applying paint to a wet plaster surface, as can be seen on some of the royal palace floors at Tell el- Amama during the reign of Amenhotpe IV in the eigh- teenth dynasty.Introduced in the fifth dynasty, the color blue was composed originally of azurite (copper carbonate) from the Sinai and Eastern Desert; later it was manufac- tured from a frit compound of heated quartz, lime, and alkalis (natron or plant ash), ground malachite, and cal- cium carbonate.
Green was made of naturally occurring powdered malachite or a mixture of malachite and cal- cium carbonate.
Sometimes ocher yellow was mixed with a blue frit to produce green.